Revegetation of sites following treatment is an important last step to ensure that any residual kudzu does not reestablish. , Kudzu management is of great concern in the management of national parks in the southeast such as Vicksburg National Military Park, Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park, and Great Smoky Mountains National Park. , The economic impact of kudzu in the United States is estimated at $100 million to $500 million lost per year in forest productivity. Ecological Threat Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. Unfortunately it is because of climate change that kudzu has become as bad as it has in the southern US. By the early 20th century, southerners began to use kudzu for purposes other than ornamentation and so kudzu began to come closer in contact with the land which, in turn, encouraged its spread throughout the southeast. For this reason Kudzu was promoted to be used as an erosion control.  Vines must be mowed down just above ground level every month or two during the growing season in order to prevent them from growing back.  Along the vines are nodes, points at which stems or tendrils can propagate to increase support and attach to structures. Kudzu grows well under a wide range of environmental conditions, although greatest growth is achieved where winters are mild (40-60°F), summer temperatures rise above 80°F, and rainfall is abundant (101+ cm [39 in]). Native to eastern Asia, the perennial vine known as kudzu was introduced to the southeastern United States in the late 19th century as an ornamental plant to provide shade for porches.  The roots can account for up to 40% of total plant biomass. Soil solarization is a thermal (heat) method that utilizes solar-enhanced heating of the soil to kill the root system of the plant, thereby avoiding the use of pesticides and other more dangerous (fire-based) means to control the plant. Happy weeding! National Genetic Resources Program. Linda Crampton from British Columbia, Canada on July 18, 2019: I've never had to deal with kudzu. True. Estimates of the vine's spread vary, from the United States Forest Service's 2015 estimate of 2,500 acres (1,000 ha - 10 km²) per year to the Dep… The kudzu. Provides kudzu resources from sources with an interest in the prevention, control, or eradication of invasive species. Kudzu is a fast growing vine native to China and Japan and was introduced into the United States in the late 1800s as fodder for livestock and to prevent soil erosion. Kudzu is a climbing vine native to Japan. YouTube; Oklahoma State University. The leaves are alternate and compound, with three broad, hairy leaflets up to 4 inches across. While they may admit that Kudzu was deliberately sown by the US Soil Conservation Service to reduce soil erosion, they just as quickly say that it is a noxious, invasive plant that should be avoided at all cost. Everest, J.W., J.H. SUNUP TV. Once rooted, most stems lose connection with each other within one year, allowing each stem to become a physiologically independent individual, and requiring that all stems be treated or removed in order to eliminate a population. , Another form of chemical removal other than herbicides is soil solarization. Appearance Pueraria montana var. , Currently, grazing by goats and pigs is the best method for control of the vine. Integrated Taxonomic Information System.  Kudzu is also used as a food crop in Java, Sumatra, and Malaya, and can be found in Puerto Rico and South America. However, by 1953, the kudzu invasion was on the move and the USDA took kudzu off of the list of recommended cover plants.  The efficacy of the treatment of alcohol-related problems is currently under question, but experiments show promising results.  Power companies must spend about $1.5 million per year to repair damage to power lines. The most extensive infestations have been found in the southern United States, including Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia, earning kudzu the nickname “the vine that ate the south.” The Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Library says this about kudzu: ————— Scientific name: Pueraria montana; a subdivision of Phaseoleae, the group that includes peas and beans.  There are several biological means that are already in place and more that may be implemented to control the growth of kudzu. They reduce the environment to impoverished "vine barrens". However it will not grow in very wet or thin hard-pan soil.  Seed predation is quite prevalent, with up to 81% of seeds incurring damage in populations studied in North Carolina. , In the United States, kudzu has been used as livestock feed, in fertilizer, and in erosion control, and the vines have been used for folk art. Maps can be downloaded and shared. Maesen & S. M. Almeida ex Sanjappa & Predeep (ITIS), Introduced as an ornamental and for erosion control (Everest et al. Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board. In 1970 kudzu was listed as a common weed, and in 1998 it was listed as a Fed-eral Noxious Weed. A different survey found twenty-five different species of insect feeding on the kudzu. Vines are woody or herbaceous twining or climbing plants with relatively long stems.  Another way to control kudzu is goats and sheep. In kudzu’s native countries, it has continued to have beneficial uses beyond being an adequate form of soil erosion control. Kudzu is drought tolerant and only the above ground portions of the plant are damaged by frost.  These attributes of kudzu made it attractive as an ornamental plant for shading porches in the southeastern United States, but they facilitated the growth of kudzu as it became a "structural parasite" of the South, enveloping entire structures when untreated and often referred to as "the vine that ate the South".. Nothing seems to stop it. "Herbicide Tests for Kudzu Eradication. When using this method of kudzu control, all of the plant material must be removed and/or destroyed (burned or fed to cattle) to prevent the vines from taking root and re-growing. Kudzu… C ompletely covers vegetation and structures. , Although kudzu prefers forest regrowth and edge habitats with high sun exposure, the plant can survive in full sun or partial shade. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Kudzu. Of the plants that can successfully compete with kudzu, many are other invasive species such as the Chinese privet and the Japanese honeysuckle. The maximum length the vine can reach is 30 m (98 feet). Kudzu has also expanded into non‐analog climates in the invasive range that are not found in the native range, including parts of south‐central (western Texas, northern Louisiana, Arkansas) and western (Washington, Oregon, California) United States (Fig. Jr., I.N. Ontario's Invading Species Awareness Program (Canada). 1999), Crowds out native species (Everest et al. 46, no 5, September, 2015, p. 19. Its introduction has produced devastating environmental consequences. As with most aggressive exotic species, eradication requires persistence in monitoring and thoroughness in treating patches during a multi-year program. By 1997, the vine was placed on the "Federal Noxious Weed List". Potential control agents have to be rejected if they are shown in laboratory and field tests to feed on these non-target plants. , Kudzu is a perennial vine native to Asia, primarily subtropical and temperate regions of China, Japan, and Korea, with trifoliate leaves composed of three leaflets. Cooperative Extension. Kudzu grows well under a wide range of conditions and in many soil types. In the southern part of the United States, kudzu is known as "the vine that ate the South" and efforts are made to eradicate it. Google. Its fleshy tap roots can reach 7 in. IFAS. ARS. Blaustein, R.J. (2001). These include mechanical, chemical, and biological methods. A small herd can reduce an acre (0.4 ha) of kudzu every day. lobata. The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Our species profiles include selected highly relevant resources for the species (organized by source), and access to all species related resources included on our site. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. A. Webster, C.R. Miller, D.M. Department of the Environment and Energy.  By 1946, it was estimated that 1,200,000 hectares (3,000,000 acres) of kudzu had been planted. Pennsylvania Sea Grant. The following species have been reported to be invasive in natural areas in the U.S. In China, kudzu is found on road embankments and in mountainous regions where cultivation of crops was not possible.  The climate and environment of the Southeastern United States allowed the kudzu to grow virtually unchecked.  However, chemical treatments are expensive, and killing off the plant completely requires large amounts of herbicides (40-80 gallons per acre). Australian Government. University of Georgia. Species native to the U.S. are included when they are invasive in areas well outside their … , Bill Finch, "Legend of the Green Monster," Smithsonian Magazine, vol. million planted acres. Primary kudzu roots can weigh over 180 kg, grow to 18 cm in diameter, and penetrate soil at a rate of 3 cm in depth per day. Google. North Carolina State University.  This claim, however, was disputed in 2015 with the United States Forest Service estimating an increase of 2,500 acres (1,000 ha) per year. , Kudzu's primary method of reproduction is asexual vegetative spread (cloning) which is aided by the ability to root wherever a stem is exposed to soil. The word "kudzu" comes from the Japanese word for the plant, 葛, or kuzu. Kudzu growing near the Mississippi river in Baton Rouge. This part must also be destroyed to prevent re-implantation. The kudzu bug is able to survive anywhere that the kudzu vine is present – and has the potential to spread into areas where the vine spreads to. Kudzu has even been shown to possess medical properties and was used to fight inflammation and infections, among other ailments. In 1953 the United States Department of Agriculture removed kudzu from a list of suggested cover plants and listed it as a weed in 1970. The .gov means it’s official.Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. Today, many people that consider Kudzu an invasive species do not talk much about the fact that it is an edible plant related to peas. (18 cm) in width and grow to 9 ft. (3.8 m) deep. A second major promotion of kudzu came in 1884 in the Japanese pavilion at the New Orleans Exposition… University of Florida. "Kudzu Root: An Ancient Chinese Source of Modern Antidipsotrophic Agents. While the vine spreads, the pest range will spread, and the pest will navigate itself into economically important crops.  The starch is used in Japanese cuisine, and is widely consumed as such in that country. Washington State Recreation and Conservation Office. United States Kudzu Range Map.  In the southeast, the spread of kudzu is especially troublesome because of the high level of biodiversity in this region that is not found in other regions of the United States. Today, somewhere between two and seven million acres in the southeastern United Stated are covered by kudzu. This has earned it the nickname "the vine that ate the South". Its introduction has produced devastating environmental consequences. & Jose, S. "Woody Invaders and the Challenges They Pose to Forest Ecosystems in the Eastern United States" Journal of Forestry, Vol. lobata is a climbing, deciduous vine capable of reaching lengths of over 100 ft. (30.5 m) in a single season.  Today, kudzu is estimated to cover 3,000,000 hectares (7,400,000 acres) of land in the southeastern United States, mostly in Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina and Mississippi. Our species profiles include selected highly relevant resources for the species (organized by source), and access to all species related resources included on our site. , There are several methods for controlling kudzu growth that are used in the Southeastern United States. Range. The word is a corruption of “kuzu,“ the Japanese name for the plant.